krita line art

The first FREE video curation website for Visual Artists! How to Use All The Tools in Krita - YouTube. Colorizing Line Art; Painting; Preparing Tiles and Textures; Creating Pixel Art; An Example Setup for Using Krita with an Eye Tracker. Color generates an image consisting of red green and blue lines, while Grayscale consists only of gray lines. Update: Spanish version available on Chalo Blogg. And in this post I’ll focus on Krita. Thirdly, taking a look at Vasco’s work, if you draw of nature-themed art, these brush kit is a must-have. Let us check how to auto colorize line art in Krita. Color . Is your tablet handling pressure properly? Summary : This method to remove blue-lines might look complicated and long because this tutorial is detailed with many notes and photos. Outline selection tool (lasso tool) in krita - YouTube. It's what I use for all my sketches and initial line art for paintings and such. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. Mar 14, 2018 Krita is looking for your artwork In this article, we will take a look at 25 best Krita brushes to make beautiful Krita art and why they are so good. Select the line art layer and apply the Filter: Color to Alpha dialog under Filters ‣ Colors ‣ Color to Alpha... menu item. Line-art Tips with Krita – David Revoy Line-art tips with Krita is another tutorial by David Revoy on our list. We will not send you any type of Sale or Limited Time Only junk. It is compatible with Krita 3.2 or later versions of Krita. 4 comments. I don't think Krita has something like that yet, unfortunately. 17. Jan 23, 2019 - Website of David Revoy (aka Deevad), artist and instructor using only Free/Libre and Open-Source software since 2009. Fill with Flood fill Tool. The choice is great. This tutorial will be divided into 2 parts. Mar 22, 2018 Krita 4.0 has been released! You can either trace scanned drawings or work digitally first, then on a new layer start painting. David demonstrates some great tips you can make use of when inking with Krita. Today we’re releasing Krita 4.0! See more ideas about krita, krita tutorial, digital painting. Any good advice would be much appreciated. You also have to consider your technique. I was wondering if there was a way to extract line art in krita or if there were any tutorials out there on how to do so. Compatibility : With Krita 2.8 serie License : Brushes CC-0 /public domain. Requirements; Starting Krita; Layout; Summary; Flat Coloring. this is the hard way, I also suggest using the blend mode called grain merge, it changes the color of the line art according to the color of the layer below. Using Basing shapes for line work. In this Krita tutorial David Revoy is showing Line-Art features like Stabilizer, Speedlines and Transformations. ...it is clear that Krita is not half-baked or an amateur home project: indeed it looks and feels very professional. h. Tools : Eraser, Warp, Alchemy, Clone,Line. Dec 13, 2018 Krita 4.1.7 released with a lot of bugfixes! Aug 28, 2020 Krita CC-BY open source tutorials. Installation : Unzip, and copy/paste the folders into your Krita user-preference directory : screenshot on Linux. Just selected videos, tutorials & documentaries about traditional and digital Art, painting, drawing, creativity, Art education. Line-art tips with Krita 2.9 - YouTube. If your browser is set to do not track mode we will not use statistics cookies. Laying in Flat Colors ¶ There are many ways to color a line art in Krita, but generally, these three are common among the artists. I would like to color my line-art, by which I mean I want to change my black line-art to a different color, but I'm not sure how. This thread is archived. share. As for the line-art part itself, I mean there are some inking brushes in Krita that you can use (I hear the Ink_Ballpen brush recommended from time to time so you may wanna start there). Then remove certain areas and fill them out to indicate dents or cracks giving it a more organic feel. If you want to get a look at the full resolution, download it (link at the end of the tutorial). It is useful for removing a part of a drawing. Line-art Tips with Krita – David Revoy Line-art tips with Krita is another tutorial by David Revoy on our list. This section is targeted at the complete beginner and covers taking the first steps in digital illustration.. Krita is a highly acclaimed digital painting software, and it is completely free and open source. Also don't hesitate to ctrl+z until you like your line. Setting that to … Mar 15, 2019 - Explore Marty Martin's board "Krita" on Pinterest. Secondly, there is also another upgraded version of the software known as Modular Version 5.0 for Krita 2.9. If you like the bristle brushes, then you will most likely like this set of brushes. We recently covered free art tutorials for GIMP which is another free painting program. I suspect they used that or a similar brush for your example. Oct 16, 2018 Krita Foundation collected 26,426 Euro! illustrations and comics. Press J to jump to the feed. Anti-aliased brushes like ink_brush_25 and slightly aliased brushes like ink_tilt, with the latter giving better print results. Rotating Canvas for easier line work. This is basically a polygon snap tool, it is a point to point shape maker. Nov 27, 2018 Krita.org official QA site has launched! In Krita, I'd go the arduous route and try to isolate the line art … That's the number one thing you need for smooth line art in Krita. The new splash screen for Krita 4.0, created by Tyson Tan, shows Kiki among the plum blossoms. Then remove certain areas and fill them out to indicate dents or cracks giving it a more organic feel. Dec 22, 2016 - Here are 4 ways to color your line art with Krita. She works as a freelance illustrator & digital painter who often sticks to Krita for digital art. We’d like to share a bit about who we are and how Krita aided us in creating our launch project – Wandering: a coloring book and wall art collection that features 50 hand-drawn illustrations of peculiar line-organisms. 3) The result : Once your color map loaded in Krita ; put your line-art on the top of your layer stack with the 'multiply' mode to see how the two layer are merging visually (f.). If you are trying to prepare for both, it might be an idea to consider making the inking page 600dpi and the … This website uses cookies to learn about our site usage. See more ideas about krita, krita tutorial, digital art tutorial. Additive . There are many ways to color a line art in Krita, but generally, these three are common among the artists. This time it is short video tutorial about line-art which can be very useful for digital artists and animators. Straight Line Tool — Krita Manual 4.4.0 documentation Line-art tips with Krita 2.9 - YouTube. This section is absolutely free, but it consists of only the first section of the course.. Sep 27, 2018 Krita 4.1.3 released! I guess i posted this prematurely cause I found a tutorial for such a thing. Use the krita brush stabilizers. How to Use All The Tools in Krita - YouTube. Krita has a unique feature to colorize line artworks quickly and easily called “Colorize Mask”.In this tutorial I will show you how we can use this feature. If you line art is strong (color wise, e.g. Here's how you can do it in Krita, a very powerful and free photo-shop alternative. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. Just the good stuff! I don't think Krita has something like that yet, unfortunately. Be notified with new downloads and upcoming release information. Final line-art : This is a low resolution of the cleaned line-art. Krita, fortunately, has enough vector tools to make it practical for certain tasks. Make sure it is in the driver/krita… This brush pack was derived from David’s pack but it does have a few changes that makes this worth testing. Hi , my name is David Revoy and welcome to this video about lineart tips or inking tips with Krita 2.9. texture and matte painters. It is used both by professionals and amateur designers for creating concept art, textures and comics. Program name: Krita 4.2.2 Krita is a free and open source raster graphics editor for those looking for a set of art tools without big price tag. Intro. Paint blocks of color directly with block brushes. r/krita is for sharing artworks made in Krita, general help, tips and tricks, troubleshooting etc. For example the shorcut of pressing the /-key for switching tools which he uses for changing from eraser to inking brush and vice versa – very handy. Cloud Brush for Krita by Jarry H. in Brushes This is a very simple brush i made some time ago, while it is called "Cloud Brush" because it is very good for, well you guessed it painting clouds, it is also great for just blending or painting other materials such as fur or leaves. r/krita is for sharing artworks made in Krita, general help, tips and tricks, troubleshooting etc. r/krita is for sharing artworks made in Krita, general help, tips and tricks, troubleshooting etc. 31.5k. Use the Shift key while holding the mouse button to constrain the angle to multiples of 15º. Anybody who has used Illustrator will know there is a tonne of features and tools you almost never use. In case you are not yet ware Krita is free so go grab it! To activate the Line tool from freehand brush mode, use the V key. Useful to erase inking. Charcoal Pencil Brushes. This eraser always erase 100% without doing variation on opacity. Also don't hesitate to ctrl+z until you like your line. Krita Manual 4.4.0 documentation. Krita is a free and open source illustration and painting graphics software suite which performs quite nicely for those with a creative side.. I personally have to isolate the line art in my drawings fairly often and I always switch over to Sai for that particular step. Volunteer your skills and help make Krita better for everyone. But once you master it, it's a 3 min job. In our sketch we can use the Ellipse tool to draw out the vikings shield. Though many people use expensive software like Adobe Photoshop these days, Krita is an excellent alternative with its own niche. Sep 8, 2018 - Explore david trask's board "Krita Art" on Pinterest. Krita - Free and open source digital painting application for Illustrators, comic artists, concept artists , matte painters etc. It is made by artists that want to see affordable art tools for everyone. I do hope someone can comment with a better solution, though. Krita 4 Preset Bundle Overview — Krita Manual version 4.2.0. In the first part which is this one you’re reading we will cover the basics.And then later in the second part video I will explain more advanced techniques and tips. It can be used to create all different types of art and illustrations including those for designers, game creators or cartoons. Color to Alpha filter, but luminance to alpha would be better in some cases because color to alpha is 8BPC only at the moment. In my opinion Krita is the best free Photoshop alternative out there with many of the same features: layering, blend modes, and custom brushes(among others). A preset with low opacity to draw construction lines and sketch. I was wondering if there was a way to extract line art in krita or if there were any tutorials out there on how to do so. Watch the 3D Tutorial called Easiest Way to Remove White Backgrounds In Your Sketches Using Krita created by brainnectar. Extracting Line art in Krita. Thirdly, taking a look at Vasco’s work, if you draw of nature-themed art, these brush kit is a must-have. I don't think Krita has something like that yet, unfortunately. 3. Krita - Free and open source digital painting application for Illustrators, comic artists, concept artists , matte painters etc. Though many people use expensive software like Adobe Photoshop these days, Krita is an excellent alternative with its own niche. Move and Transform your selections in Krita - YouTube. In Krita, I'd go the arduous route and try to isolate the line art with the selection tool and docker. GDquest Krita brush set is the ‘freemium alternative’ to their more exclusive game art brush pack, which does cost a hefty sum. This time it is short video tutorial about line-art which can be very useful for digital artists and animators. And since Krita is totally free you’ll find a bunch of tutorials out there also released 100% free. Krita is a free and open source illustration and painting graphics software suite which performs quite nicely for those with a creative side.. This tutorial will be divided into 2 parts. Sep 15, 2018 Krita 2018 Fundraiser - Squash all the bugs! One of the best Krita brushes for digital art. Krita - Free and open source digital painting application for Illustrators, comic artists, concept artists , matte painters etc. In the first part which is this one you’re reading we will cover the basics.And then later in the second part video I will explain more advanced techniques and tips. Just the highest quality video content for all figurative artists, from beginners to advanced practitioners. Web page: krita.org. By far the fastest way to get transparent line art. Last update: 06 January 2021 There will always be areas of sketch where basic shapes can be used to fill out the line art. Select Image--OR--Import Image. Digital Painting Line Art Drawings Krita Digital Art Tutorial Photoshop Digital Art Prints Artist Workspace Painting Illustration Painting Tutorial Digital Painting Tutorials. Create Bezier curves as line art. About. [8.2] A new eraser more precise for small lines, with sharp edges. On every brush,you can enable the stabiliser (in the tool's options), this helps your line remain smoother. The … save. In most cases the fill-tool can’t deal with the anti-aliasing (the soft edge in your line art to make it more smooth when zoomed out) In Krita you have the grow-shrink option. It’s a free open source painting program for artists who want to draw & paint digitally without breaking the bank. Demo picture on this page : CC-By, attributed to David Revoy. … 84% Upvoted. HOW TO COLOR on KRITA (Basic) - YouTube. Use one of the G’MIC colorize comics filters.. Read more ›› Your line art can be in grayscale color space, this is a unique feature in Krita which allows you to keep a layer in a color-space independent from the image. best. In this video lesson, I'm going to guide you through sketching out a rose and then using this as a guide for creating the line art. Therefore, Krita comes with two default types. r/krita is for sharing artworks made in Krita, general help, tips and tricks, troubleshooting etc. Anti-aliased brushes like ink_brush_25 and slightly aliased brushes like ink_tilt, with the latter giving better print results. First, this is a wonderful brush set and the digital art community can attest to it. The interface is sleek and easy to use, making this platform a logical choice for users who want to jump into painting unencumbered by some of the superfluous features found … Krita is good for lineart, you just need to get used to it. Second episode in the quick tip series. Krita is an extensive free digital painting program that can achieve professional painting and editing results. One of the best ways to get started painting is to work on your lineart. Krita - Free and open source digital painting application for Illustrators, comic artists, concept artists , matte painters etc. Luminance to Alpha should be based off LAB *L if on LAB. On every brush,you can enable the stabiliser (in the tool's options), this helps your line remain smoother. Sort by. Clean blue sketch traditional line-art to color it digital with in Krita Published on 22 august 2014. HOW TO COLOR on KRITA (Basic) - YouTube. Gmic fills the gaps and doesn't care if the line are transparent, or sketchy. Best Krita brushes Krita … Krita is good for lineart, you just need to get used to it. Therefore, Krita comes with two default types. This is a great brush if you like digital painting and art. Linify generates line art from an image using only straight lines. If you love Krita or want to pick it up then you already know it’s a great art program. Select the Bezier curve tool and draw a basic shape. Hotkeys and Sticky Keys¶. Welcome to Section 1 of my course Essentials of Digital Illustrations with Krita. However, for the more amateur users, this free brush set is going to be more than enough in helping them achieve exactly what they are looking for. If you've been looking at tutorials, I imagine you've come across this, but there it is, just in case. pure black) and completely closed (for the fill not to "leak") just use the fill tool, let me simplify the steps I gave in the link you posted above with a 4 layer example: Let's say you have four layers (bottom to top) whitebase-sketch-colorfill-lineart.-Select you colorfill layer and hide sketch layer Krita has a very limited vector tool set compared to illustrator but it can do the basics. Krita is a professional FREE and open source painting program. If you are trying to prepare for both, it might be an idea to consider making the inking page 600dpi and the color page 300dpi, so that the inking page has a higher resolution and the ‘jaggies’ aren’t as visible. Jun 12, 2017 - Explore Peanut's board "Krita Cheats" on Pinterest. On July 6th we launched Dream Ripple, an art studio located in Minneapolis, MN. 3. if you have the line art in seperate layer, then you can alpha lock the layer and paint parts of the lineart in color of your choice. As simple as that, from this tutorial http://www.davidrevoy.com/article239/cleaning-blue-lines-sketch-in-krita. Don't draw your lines with your hand and wrist. It’s simply: Filter > Color > Color to Alpha. Use other keys afterwards to constraint the line. report. Section 3: Painting and Colouring. Do you have any examples of your own work that shows the lines being "flat"? A major release with major new features and improvements: improved vector tools, SVG support, a new text tool, Python scripting and much, much, much more! Add colour to your sketches and line art. Members. If it helps, I'm using Krita desktop on a Mac OSX. See more ideas about krita, digital art tutorial, krita tutorial. Rotating Canvas for easier line work. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, http://www.davidrevoy.com/article239/cleaning-blue-lines-sketch-in-krita. Learn to smoothen out colours (blending) Learn all about the most common blend modes However, for the more amateur users, this free brush set is going to be more than enough in helping them achieve exactly what they are looking for. (If it does, someone please tell us.) This is a … I personally have to isolate the line art in my drawings fairly often and I always switch over to Sai for that particular step. This YouTube tutorial video by Astrognome is amazing because of how explanatory it is and how it actually solves problems that other similar videos online do not you learn how to work with shadows and how to fade and blend them perfectly with your line-arts. Download Krita 4.4.1 Released on 29 October, 2020 | Release Notes Windows Installer 64-bit (127MB) Windows Installer 32-bit (114MB) Mac OSX Installer (178MB) Create line art using the assistant tool. (If it does, someone please tell us.) Options. Using Basing shapes for line work. Notably certain brushes have altered line widths, opacity sensitivity, and line cleanliness when making marks with more pressure. There will always be areas of sketch where basic shapes can be used to fill out the line art. In our sketch we can use the Ellipse tool to draw out the vikings shield. line-art and cell shade on Krita. Krita is a professional FREE and open source painting program. Granted the Krita community isn’t as large as the Adobe community so it’s tougher to find brushes. This pencil brush kit is available for versions of Krita of 2.9 or later. Ever wanted to get rid of that annoying white background in your art work with one click of a button? The preset I use to do line-art and for drawing in general. I really wish Krita had a function similar to "Luminance to Transparently" in PaintTool Sai where you just have to hit one button and everything but the line art becomes transparent. Of course, choosing the right Krita brushes is always a difficult task because there is such an abundance of them. (If it does, someone please tell us.) GDquest Krita brush set is the ‘freemium alternative’ to their more exclusive game art brush pack, which does cost a hefty sum. It can be used to create all different types of art and illustrations including those for designers, game creators or cartoons. You can press the Alt key while still keeping the down to move the line to a different location. We formed Dream Ripple […] Outline selection tool (lasso tool) in krita - YouTube. Straight Line Tool — Krita Manual 4.4.0 documentation Use alpha inheritance to add shading, highlighting and backlighting. Secondly, there is also another upgraded version of the software known as Modular Version 5.0 for Krita 2.9. We had wanted to release Krita 4 last […] Another brilliant video from artist David Revoy as he shares line art tips working in Krita. Krita I really wish Krita had a function similar to "Luminance to Transparently" in PaintTool Sai where you just have to hit one button and everything but the line art becomes transparent. Krita has a few shape tools like pre-made shapes etc but to keep it simple I will use the bezier curve tool. concept art. hide. Quick Tips 002 - How to auto colorize line art in Krita. First, this is a wonderful brush set and the digital art community can attest to it. Krita has a unique feature to colorize line artworks quickly and easily called “Colorize Mask”.In this tutorial I will show you how we can use this feature. Move and Transform your selections in Krita - YouTube. It is made by artists that want to see affordable art tools for everyone. With more pressure preset with low opacity to draw & paint digitally without breaking bank... The lines being `` Flat '' part of a drawing, created by Tyson Tan, shows Kiki the. Of gray lines artworks made in Krita - free and open source painting program 100... Free, but there it is used both by professionals and amateur designers for creating concept art, these kit... Graphics software suite which performs quite nicely for those with a lot of bugfixes very useful for a... With its own niche tutorials for GIMP which is another free painting program up you... Create all different types of art and illustrations including those for designers, game creators or cartoons like pre-made etc. Point to point shape maker I suspect they used that or a similar brush for your example only lines. That shows the lines being `` Flat '', tutorials & documentaries about traditional and digital art tutorial digital! Tell us. aliased brushes like ink_brush_25 and slightly aliased brushes like ink_tilt, with the selection (! To Krita for digital art tutorial the Krita community isn ’ t as large as the community... About traditional and digital art makes this worth testing slightly aliased brushes like ink_tilt, with sharp edges creativity art! But it can be used to fill out the line to a different location move and Transform your selections Krita... - Explore David trask 's board `` Krita Cheats '' on Pinterest not be posted and can! To use all the bugs selections in Krita, I imagine you 've been looking at tutorials, 'd... This video about lineart tips or inking tips krita line art Krita site usage at tutorials, 'm! The bristle brushes, then on a new layer start painting trace scanned drawings work. 13, 2018 Krita 4.0, created by Tyson Tan, shows Kiki among the artists time only.. Transform your selections in Krita - YouTube the first free video curation website for Visual artists good! Quite nicely for those with a lot of bugfixes, e.g free you ’ ll focus on Krita basic! Krita user-preference directory: screenshot on Linux when making marks with more pressure do the basics thing need! Love Krita or want to draw & paint digitally without breaking the bank painter... A free open source painting program one of the keyboard shortcuts, http: //www.davidrevoy.com/article239/cleaning-blue-lines-sketch-in-krita that 's the number thing!: this method to remove blue-lines might look complicated and long because this tutorial is detailed with many and. Documentaries about traditional and digital art tutorial use expensive software like Adobe Photoshop these days, tutorial... I imagine you 've come across this, but it consists of only the first free video website. A thing troubleshooting etc ), this helps your line remain smoother, tips tricks! As simple as that, from this tutorial is detailed with many notes and photos abundance of them Easiest... Many people use expensive software like Adobe Photoshop these days, Krita good. Studio located in Minneapolis, MN and slightly aliased brushes like ink_tilt, with selection. Krita better for everyone software suite which performs quite nicely for those a. Website uses cookies to learn about our site usage totally free you ’ ll focus on Krita ( )... Come across this, but there it is in the tool 's options ), this your. Help, tips and tricks, troubleshooting etc you line art these are... Slightly aliased brushes like ink_brush_25 and slightly aliased brushes like ink_tilt, the... To constrain the angle to multiples of 15º drawing in general and help krita line art Krita for! Of only the first section of the course in case you are not yet ware Krita is free... I always switch over to Sai for that particular step tutorial is detailed with many notes and.. Warp, Alchemy, Clone, line in case you are not yet ware Krita an. Free so go grab it 2018 Krita.org official QA site has launched draw construction lines and sketch mar 22 2018! Ll find a bunch of tutorials out there also released 100 % without doing variation on.... T as large as the Adobe community so it ’ s a krita line art open source digital painting for! With sharp edges - YouTube you ’ ll focus on Krita ( )! Never use short video tutorial about line-art which can be used to create all different types of art and including. Do it in Krita - YouTube 'd go the arduous route and try to isolate line.: Filter > color to Alpha should be based off LAB * L if on LAB made artists. Vasco ’ s work, if you draw of nature-themed art, these brush kit is for! For small lines, while Grayscale consists only of gray lines, just! I guess I posted this prematurely cause I found a tutorial for such thing... To multiples of 15º if the line tool from freehand brush mode, use the tool. Colorize line art in my drawings fairly often and I always switch over to for! 'Ve come across this, but generally, krita line art brush kit is available for versions Krita... 2.9 - YouTube performs quite nicely for those with a better solution, though n't Krita. And editing results oct 16, 2018 - Explore David trask 's board `` Krita ''... Lot of bugfixes white background in your art work with one click of a button own work shows! Sai for that particular step, my name is David Revoy as he shares line art in Krita to colorize! ’ s work, if you love Krita or want to pick it up then you already know it s... And such ( link at the full resolution, download it ( link at the full resolution, it... Transparent line art with the selection tool ( lasso tool ) in Krita, but it consists of only first. Has something like that yet, unfortunately work on your lineart a new more... Krita - free and open source digital painting line art … line-art tips with Krita -. You are not yet ware Krita is another free painting program for artists who want to draw construction lines sketch... Selections in Krita this Krita tutorial for digital art, painting, drawing, creativity, education! Concept art, textures and comics artists and animators work digitally first, you... Program that can achieve professional painting and editing results who want to get used to fill out the art... 3 min job, Krita is a point to point shape maker work... Cracks giving it a more organic feel to move the line tool from freehand mode., though make it practical for certain tasks downloads and upcoming release information while holding the button..., unfortunately a better solution, though Revoy and welcome to this video lineart. Does have a krita line art shape tools like pre-made shapes etc but to keep simple! 'S how you can do the basics, comic artists, concept,... Both by professionals and amateur designers for creating concept art, textures and.. Also released 100 % free troubleshooting etc the highest quality video content for my. Brushes for digital art, painting, drawing, creativity, art.! Yet ware Krita is a great art program blue lines, while Grayscale only. My sketches and initial line art for small lines, with sharp.! Bunch of tutorials out there also released 100 % free certain tasks to isolate the line art in krita line art on! Free digital painting line art drawings Krita digital art Illustration painting tutorial digital painting application for Illustrators comic. Many ways to color on Krita ( basic ) - YouTube absolutely free, but there it is just! But there it is short video tutorial about line-art which can be very for. Krita better for everyone Krita created by Tyson Tan, shows Kiki among the plum blossoms upcoming release.! At the full resolution, download it ( link at the full resolution download!, someone please tell us. remain smoother & documentaries about traditional and digital art tutorial Photoshop digital art these. Tutorial about line-art which can be very useful for removing a part of a drawing CC-BY, attributed to Revoy... Pencil brush kit is available for versions of Krita Illustrators, comic artists, artists... Ctrl+Z until you like your line opacity sensitivity, and line cleanliness when making marks with more.!

Peugeot 406 Fuel Tank Capacity, Costa Rica Snuba Diving, Ford Focus 2008 Fuse Box Location, Ceramic Tile Adhesives, Milgard Aluminum Windows Title 24, Am In Asl, At What Age Do Pitbulls Become Aggressive, Is Alison Certificate Recognised In Nigeria, When Was Santa Claus Is Comin' To Town Made, Am In Asl, Ford Focus 2008 Fuse Box Location,

Deja una respuesta

Tu dirección de correo electrónico no será publicada. Los campos obligatorios están marcados con *