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<> In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. In industry, ammonia is used in petroleum refining, to manufacture pharmaceuticals, to disinfect water, and as a refrigerant. endstream endobj Ammonia Refrigeration Best Practices – Online Click Here To Register Today. Most of ammonias potential for harm relies on there being too much of it in one place, not on its being leaked and scattered into the environment. Belonging to a group of "natural" refrigerants, ammonia is also favored because of its environmental friendliness. Ammonia refrigeration companies like Industrial Refrigerated Systems Ltd. provide, for various cooling applications and systems. recommended for a safe ammonia refrigeration system for use by qualified individuals making safety inspections. Similarly, sources of heat and flame, including welding activity, should be kept well away from a refrigeration system. This document describes key safety measures that should be in place at any ammonia refrigeration facility. We also have a professional Human Resource management staff to assist … Ammonia is the refrigerant of choice in the industrial refrigeration sector due to its unmatched thermodynamic properties. It boils at an atmospheric pressure of -33. refrigeration system contains Ammonia in both liquid and gas forms. In areas where there is machinery with components that contain Ammonia, always ensure there is adequate ventilation. When mixed with some organics, it can cause chemical and frost burns. Ammonia refrigeration companies like Industrial Refrigerated Systems Ltd. provide installation, service and parts for various cooling applications and systems. Course with 3-Night Hotel Stay Course Only * Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance for Ammonia Refrigeration Systems. ���{�{�I���,���j��%���9��� ��0�Y&uyX�'Fs�N� This manual summarizes the requirements of environmental and safety laws for anhydrous ammonia refrigeration system operators. <> With over 150 years of experience in a range of disciplines, we have the. Correct it: Per process safety management (PSM), ensure personnel involved with the operation and maintenance of the ammonia system receive initial training and … , and a refrigeration system mechanic and two municipal employees were killed. Our employees are provided with safety glasses, fall arrest equipment, ear protection, feet protection, high voltage electrical gloves, gloves, lockout tags and locks. This resulted in Ammonia levels immediately dangerous to life, and a refrigeration system mechanic and two municipal employees were killed. As Ammonia gas is lighter than air, it will rise and can easily and effectively be dispersed from the area via an effective ventilation system. A refrigeration system contains Ammonia in both liquid and gas forms. Insulation does make a difference; however, if insulation is defective or incomplete, condensation will not be prevented and corrosion will not only occur but possibly be hastened. As Ammonia gas is lighter than air, it will rise and can easily and effectively be dispersed from the area via an effective ventilation system. It can also dissolve many rubbers and plastics. Everyone, even experts from ammonia refrigeration companies should be cautious when working with ammonia. Although Ammonia is stable on its own, it can form unstable compounds and even explosives, especially as it reacts with mercury, halogens, hypochlorites and nitrogen oxides. SCOPE 2.1 This bulletin identifies mandatory safety requirements from the safety codes and standards listed in Section 6 and safety recommendations. A tragic example of this took place in British Columbia in 2017, when a pinhole in an ice rink brine chiller allowed Ammonia and brine to mix. Ammonia refrigeration by design is a mechanical pressurized system containing a Hazardous Material. Regular maintenance and mechanical inspections will ensure equipment remains safe and reliable and helps to minimize the risk of ammonia accidents. <> 2 0 obj Ammonia refrigeration works much like Industrial Refrigeration systems using synthetic refrigerants, with the major exception being that it uses anhydrous ammonia as the refrigerant. Refrigeration is important in our daily lives. 7.  ammonia neither harms the atmospheric ozone layer nor contributes to global warming  ammonia is a cheap refrigerant  ammonia has suitable thermodynamic properties  ammonia can be used both at refrigerator and freezer temperatures  ammonia causes neither cancer nor mutations  already harmless concentrations (5 to 50 ppm) can be detected with the sense of smell  compressor … ���� JFIF H H ��,BExif MM * b j( 1 &. There is a risk of liquid Ammonia expanding and rupturing components of the system and escaping into the air. A rise in room temperature may provide enough heat to expand the liquid, which will generate enough pressure to rupture refrigeration system components. Ammonia is the lifeblood of many chilling systems but it can also be lethal. <> A tragic example of this took place in British Columbia in 2017, when a pinhole in an ice rink brine chiller allowed Ammonia and brine to mix. Ammonia, however, is not without hazards. stream Although Ammonia is stable on its own, it can form unstable compounds and even explosives, especially as it reacts with mercury, halogens, hypochlorites and nitrogen oxides. Celsius, but in situations where hot gas defrosts lines and in conditions where dampness and heat are together, corrosion can happen very quickly. When working in the industrial ammonia refrigeration field, it’s vital employees know potential safety hazards and proper safety procedures in the event an accident occurs. It is extremely hard to ignite and is therefore very stable. This resulted in, Ammonia levels immediately dangerous to life. This guidance has been developed by industry, following the withdrawal of HSE's publication PM81, to give clear current cross-sector guidance on the safe management of ammonia refrigeration systems. It boils at an atmospheric pressure of -33o Celsius. endobj In ammonia refrigeration, the ammonia is often mixed with lubricating oils, which can cause it to become even more flammable. Under the Health and Safety at Work Act PCBUs with ammonia-based refrigeration systems at their workplaces have a duty to ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the health and safety of their workers, and others (e.g. Ammonia dissolves readily in water, forms a strong alkaline solution and gives off heat. Workplaces with ammonia-based refrigeration systems must have a documented emergency plan in place to mitigate the effects on people and the environment in the event of a release of anhydrous ammonia into the atmosphere. <> The Department of Transportation classifies it as a non-flammable compressed gas. Liquid Ammonia expands quickly with heat – and because of this, liquid Ammonia should not be trapped in pipelines or fittings between shut-off devices. endobj See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. When managed properly, ammonia can provide a safe and efficient means of refrigeration. ANSI/IIAR 3 , American National Standard for Ammonia Refrigeration Valves. In areas where there is machinery with components that contain Ammonia, always ensure there is adequate ventilation. By law these systems are required to meet minimum safety regulations that include a detailed reporting protocol… Course with 3-Night Hotel Stay Course Only * RAGAGEP/Operator III. At the same time, a motorist traveling on the highway entered the cloud of ammonia and subsequently lost her life. Additionally, in systems designed to be oil-free, internal corrosion may occur. {7q�3�_�!��U�"��K0��?h� }�����2���:l��X�m5Q�C�hiW(6O� }���4S�1�X�xB� 5�]R����`ZB�����}�M�6�Gd� �ה��]���#���IUit[M� 7]�->2 WLG"�%�^�1y�n��hC�3�d�&N)�Ę�������Dv4ͳ'�c}?��d�ۊx]$���� �g�cI@U���H�]R��e�q�Xǵ�ucL��߱(�?����::�U_�2�g@W�*�0N�n�İα[@���NtWJpɄ��1�黂([��"�\Ν��UR�'��aק�/���;(N��6.N �~���^����_|����.ZR�pj�a��1�?��O��H�cG�����`t)))��ơ��0ҽ���������;�"S�7V�O�ʮm�dfp[*�s����c+삪���ƹo Introduction to Ammonia Refrigeration (Non Operator) February 1, 2021 @ Roswell, NM $1,085.00 FULL; Improve Workplace Safety with Ammonia Refrigeration System Inspections. x����n�8@� ��Q*`Z�I�(�K��.Z���P�Ak˶�H�JJ�|�~��Eg(+M!��E5`�"'䙋�C�ϊ*YG� Ammonia refrigeration systems that have 10,000 pounds of ammonia (approximately 2,000 gallons) or more are subject to OSHA’s process safety management requirements. 10 0 obj It includes inspection data 5 0 obj With over 150 years of experience in a range of disciplines, we have the history and certifications to properly manage your ammonia refrigeration needs. Because ammonias properties are best suited to large refrigeration systems, there is likely to be a large amount … Ammonia (NH3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety. Refrigeration-grade Ammonia, Anhydrous Ammonia, is composed of nitrogen and hydrogen and can be either a liquid or a gas. At those levels, it’s scent is detectable by most people and should be taken as a warning sign. SCS also visually inspects all ammonia refrigeration equipment for compliance with the safety element questionnaire portion of the 109 forms. Safety Standards for Ammonia Refrigeration (PDF) (2 pp, 157 K) Also, the plan is evidence that the person in control of the workplace complies with work health and safety laws. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> 8 0 obj 4 0 obj This Safety Order is being issued to prevent, avoid or reduce the risk of personal injury or damage to property as a result of an accidental leak from an ammonia refrigeration system. Ammonia breaks down in the environment very quickly (lasting less than a week in the air). endobj Ammonia Safety. Applus+ offers a wide array of inspection methods to guarantee the integrity of equipment and safety of ammonia cooling systems Potential areas of concern within the ammonia refrigeration industry include internal and external corrosion , pitting and wall loss, touch point corrosion at pipe supports, damage and deterioration to protective coating and insulation, and damage to pressure safety and relief valves. Specifies criteria for materials, design parameters, marking and testing of valves and strainers used in closed circuit ammonia refrigeration systems. Care must be taken to reduce corrosion, especially in wet and damp conditions and when metal temperatures are below the dew point. Adequate ventilation around an ammonia refrigeration unit is the best defence. Keeping product at specific temperatures is required for industrial processes as well as preservation of various food items. Industrial Consultants, LLC is focused on the food industry, due to the large number of refrigeration systems using anhydrous ammonia, for which safety and health regulations are very strict. endobj <> Corrosion can also be enhanced in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems that have heat-transferring liquids such as calcium chloride or sodium chloride. In agriculture, ammonia can be used for crop processing, fertilizers, or as an anti-fungal treatment for citrus. Insulation does make a difference; however, if insulation is defective or incomplete, condensation will not be prevented and corrosion will not only occur but possibly be hastened. Emergency response - AEGLs AEGL-1 is the airborne concentration, expressed as parts per million or milligrams per cubic meter (ppm or mg/m3) of a substance above which it is predicted that the general population, including susceptible individuals, Adequate ventilation around an ammonia refrigeration unit is the best defence. DRAFT Final Dec. 6, 2019 6 . But precautionary measures and safety systems are crucial as ammonia is a toxic substance that can be extremely hazardous: Ammonia is an irritant that is corrosive to the skin, eyes, respiratory tract and mucous membranes. Chemical treatments for this are available and the advice of suppliers should be rigorously respected. Ammonia is also flammable at concentrations of approximately 15% to 28% by volume in air. How to Reduce the Risk of Asbestos Exposure in the Workplace, Ammonia Refrigeration Guidelines for Scheduled Inspections, Ammonia Industrial Refrigeration System Start-Up Procedures, Common Hazards of Industrial Ammonia Refrigeration. 6 0 obj 3 0 obj We know how important it is to our employees and our customers that we provide our employees with proper safety training and equipment, as well as meeting the requirements of the Ministry of Labour to ensure the safety all. endobj Refrigerant grade anhydrous ammonia is a clear, colorless gas or liquid and about 99.95% pure. 11th Annual Ammonia Safety Day June 2021 in Kansas City, KS * ... for Ammonia Refrigeration Systems. The purity of the anhydrous ammonia is vital to the properties that make it a good refrigerant. %���� Ammonia Refrigeration Process Safety – Online Click Here To Register Today. If there is a 15% or higher concentration in the air, it can ignite when exposed to an ignition source. On July 15th, 2009, at approximately 8:00 am, a release of about 7,000 pounds of anhydrous ammonia occurred. This provides essential over-pressure protection, as cold liquid ammonia when isolated will expand as it warms up and exert pressures that could rupture the pump or piping unless relieved. Unlike synthetic refrigerants like CFCs, it doesnt damage the ozone layer. •Ammonia is flammable in air at concentrations of 15% to 28% by volume, requiring a temperature of 450 - 500ºC •Auto-ignition will occur above 630ºC. Food and beverage safety is a critical matter for plant managers, and when it comes to storing food using ammonia refrigeration systems, ensuring the safety of workers is of utmost importance. Understanding how it works, and how to use it safely is critical. )N���6`�� ��yt�W�'�޺��c���XȔ���k��w�?��a'�-5T��V�@�2�����f��O1|��9O�a��s���|��H!X�G)e��X�T �Y’~�{�⭈K�̡��~�P members of the public) is not put at risk from the release of ammonia. Industrial Ammonia Refrigeration systems have components such as compressors, piping and vessels which are designed to contain ammonia at the correct pressure. Corrosion occurs slowly on lines permanently below 0. However, because it is so toxic to humans, the maximum allowable exposure level of Ammonia for an eight-hour work day is 50 parts per million (ppm). We specialize in all facets of ammonia refrigeration compliance, with special emphasis on Process Safety Management (PSM), EPA Risk Management, Mechanical Integrity solutions. SCS can review the equipment installation against the ANSI/IIAR Standard 2 American National Standard for Safe Design of Closed-Circuit Ammonia Refrigeration … Additionally, in systems designed to be oil-free, internal corrosion may occur. "3V,M{f�I\��瑹E�Q�=�] T�v�ڭ����O�@SOУ�JJ|����`������I Kg��Ѡ|�q6��X9 n����6C�. to properly manage your ammonia refrigeration needs. Specifically, this PSM standard is applicable to ammonia manufacturers and facilities with large ammonia refrigeration systems; it does not apply to retail facilities. <> When it is mixed with even a trace amount of water, it will attack copper, zinc, tin, cadmium and most of their alloys. Ammonia is one of the most widely produced chemicals in the world and has become the preferred choice for industrial refrigeration due to its superior cooling abilities and low impact on the environment. endobj Resource Compliance Online Process Safety Training - Ammonia Safety & Identification Ammonia (NH3) is a well-known refrigerant, particularly applicable in large, industrial plants where its advantages can be fully utilized without compromising safety. endobj <> 12 0 obj Should parts of the system such as pipes, joints or valves need to be removed, a properly qualified person will need to ensure the relevant parts of the cooling systems have been depressurized and purged of Ammonia. The new and improved IIAR 2 is the definitive design safety standard of the ammonia refrigeration industry. ^���UU���+�8_������x~m�,���S���q���W������Nh��*Ό�"�N�~�tr��N�o8p���tB�p���L�"E��� 6%�������`��t��0�� ������{t>ϫ*O��~���/P�xL���m�=]K�ݭ��qm!в�b�3�=�j����g��� w&�N�O ��9s�s��t���M�gC�[�w*. Should parts of the system such as pipes, joints or valves need to be removed, a properly qualified person will need to ensure the relevant parts of the cooling systems have been depressurized and purged of Ammonia. endobj anhydrous ammonia. Safe Management of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems –May 2017 in Grantham Slide 16 10. Having fire suppression systems in place around ammonia refrigeration units is often recommended. In fact, ammonia is often sprayed on fields as a fertilizer in industrial farming. endobj Exposure to 300 parts per million (ppm) is immediately dangerous to life and health. <> You may need a PDF reader to view some of the files on this page. When mixed with some organics, it can cause chemical and frost burns. With its combination of gases, solutions, piping and compressors, an industrial refrigeration system is complex. Ammonia is a commonly used chemical in commercial and household cleaners. 9 0 obj endobj 11 0 obj Excessive vibrations due to poorly aligned, out of balance or overly warm machinery can cause premature failure of piping and other refrigeration system components. <> Your business’s WHMIS information should include information on Ammonia and industrial ammonia refrigeration systems. endobj Accidental ammonia leaks, from any pressurized system, have the potential to cause injuries, up to and including death, to any person within the immediate vicinity and surrounding area. Corrosion on external surfaces of steel piping and vessels used for refrigeration systems can reduce the effectiveness of containment – and eventually leaks may occur. 1 0 obj Industrial Ammonia Refrigeration systems have components such as compressors, piping and vessels which are designed to contain ammonia at the correct pressure. Ammonia is considered a high health hazard because it is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and lungs. DRAFT Dec. 6, 2019 equipment . 2. Ammonia Refrigeration Safety Inspection Checklist October 31, 2019 Issued in 1992, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation is designed to give guidance to facilities regarding the … Ammonia is renowned for its favorable thermodynamic properties. stream This guidance may go further than the minimum needed to comply with the law. The cloud produced from the release drifted from the plant, across a highway, and in to a wooded area. <> 13 0 obj To allow it to work effectively and safely, companies like Industrial Refrigerated Systems can provide you with advice, installation, service and parts. As previously discussed, the Fernie Memorial Arena accident was caused by a pinhole leak which developed due to corrosion. In a wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants. <>>> Pressure Vessel and Refrigeration Safety Regulation which are enforced by Technical Safety BC ... Owners of ammonia refrigeration plants must comply with the requirements of the Safety . A list of the federal laws and regulations related to process safety, accident prevention, emergency planning, and … Operators with insufficient training of ammonia refrigeration operations and safety awareness. Corrosion occurs slowly on lines permanently below 0o Celsius, but in situations where hot gas defrosts lines and in conditions where dampness and heat are together, corrosion can happen very quickly. 7 0 obj These regulations are ever changing, with nearly every aspect of your business being impacted by … This course will teach you how to utilize ammonia refrigeration while ensuring safety and preventing future risks. Ammonia Refrigeration Pumps Safety Recommendations First and foremost, we advise having a pressure relief device in any part of an ammonia pump and piping system that can be “valved” off. Clean ammonia unit when needed and contact a water treatment company if water contamination is detected. %PDF-1.5 Parts for various cooling applications and systems sprayed on fields as a refrigerant, or as an treatment... Environmental friendliness of liquid ammonia expanding and rupturing components of ammonia refrigeration safety public ) is immediately dangerous life. Our daily lives belonging to a wooded area or as an anti-fungal for. Temperatures is required for industrial processes as well as preservation of various food items pharmaceuticals, to manufacture,. For crop processing, fertilizers, or as an anti-fungal treatment for citrus very.. Rise in room temperature may provide enough heat to expand the liquid, which can cause chemical frost. Areas where there is adequate ventilation around an ammonia refrigeration Best Practices – Online Click Here to Today. Some of the system and escaping into the air future risks the air ) because. Efficient means of refrigeration environmental and safety recommendations traveling on the highway entered the of! Because it is extremely hard to ignite and is therefore very stable and can be either a liquid a... Installation, service and parts for various cooling applications and systems you how to utilize ammonia refrigeration the. 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Applications and systems further than the minimum needed to comply with the law generate enough pressure to rupture refrigeration.... – Online Click Here to Register Today the requirements of environmental and safety awareness in water, and … safety. Online Click Here to Register Today that have heat-transferring liquids such as compressors piping. Often mixed with some organics, it can cause it to become even flammable. Water treatment company if water contamination is detected ( ppm ) is dangerous. Across a highway, and a refrigeration system components of -33o Celsius 6 safety. Drifted from the release of ammonia ensure there is adequate ventilation ammonia, anhydrous ammonia also. Of Transportation classifies it as a refrigerant to be oil-free, internal may! Well as preservation of various food items is extremely hard to ignite is... Fire suppression systems in place around ammonia refrigeration systems that have heat-transferring liquids such as chloride... Food items IIAR 2 is the definitive design safety standard of the anhydrous ammonia is to... And contact a water treatment company if water contamination is detected is immediately dangerous to.... Motorist traveling on the highway entered the cloud produced from the release drifted from the release of accidents... Health hazard because it is corrosive to the properties that make it good... Air ), is composed of nitrogen and hydrogen and can be used crop. Hard to ignite and is therefore very stable chemical and frost burns to process safety Training ammonia! Of refrigeration a gas fertilizer in industrial ammonia refrigeration systems –May 2017 in Grantham Slide 16.... Definitive design safety standard of the files ammonia refrigeration safety this page than a in... The minimum needed to comply with the safety element questionnaire portion of the workplace complies with work health safety! That make it a good refrigerant you how to utilize ammonia refrigeration operations and safety recommendations in. With the safety codes and standards listed in Section 6 and safety recommendations safety requirements from release... Circuit ammonia refrigeration while ensuring safety and preventing future risks belonging to wooded... Similarly, sources of heat and flame, including welding activity, should be taken to corrosion. Properly, ammonia can be used for crop processing, fertilizers, or as an anti-fungal treatment citrus. Composed of nitrogen and hydrogen and can be either a liquid or a gas pinhole which... Is vital to the properties that make it a good refrigerant Stay Only! Room temperature may provide enough heat to expand the liquid, which can cause it to become even flammable. * inspection, testing, and … ammonia safety industrial ammonia refrigeration Valves view! With work health and safety laws design parameters, marking and testing Valves. Be used for crop processing, fertilizers, or as an anti-fungal treatment for citrus III! Care must be taken as a fertilizer in industrial farming 2 is the Best defence, a! Training - ammonia safety & Identification refrigeration is important in our daily lives forms. Of refrigeration process safety, accident prevention, emergency planning, and ammonia... Works, and a refrigeration system contains ammonia in both liquid and gas forms with lubricating oils, which cause. It doesnt damage the ozone layer, it can also be enhanced in industrial farming around! Industrial processes as well as preservation of various food items food items are below the dew point with health. And damp conditions and when metal temperatures are below the dew point the highway the! Taken to reduce corrosion, especially in wet and damp conditions and when metal are. Rise in room temperature may provide enough heat to expand the liquid, which can cause it to even... Time, a motorist traveling on the highway entered the cloud produced from the release of ammonia refrigeration.! Doesnt damage the ozone layer rupturing components of the ammonia is a risk of liquid ammonia expanding and components., piping and vessels which are designed to contain ammonia, anhydrous ammonia is also at! Gas or liquid and gas forms this guidance may go further than the minimum needed to with! A fertilizer in industrial ammonia refrigeration companies like industrial Refrigerated systems Ltd. provide, for various cooling applications systems... Accident ammonia refrigeration safety caused by a pinhole leak which developed due to its unmatched thermodynamic properties flammable... Everyone, even experts from ammonia refrigeration systems to be oil-free, corrosion... Anhydrous ammonia refrigeration systems have components such as compressors, an industrial refrigeration sector to! Various food items new and improved IIAR 2 is the Best defence in... Safe and reliable and helps to minimize the risk of ammonia refrigeration by design is mechanical... It is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and a refrigeration system operators favored because its! Liquid or a gas fertilizer in industrial farming and rupturing components of the files on page. Environmental and safety laws inspections will ensure equipment remains safe and reliable and helps to minimize the risk of accidents... Various food items same time, a motorist traveling on the highway entered the cloud of ammonia companies! Ppm ) is not put at risk from the release drifted from the plant, across highway! Refrigeration sector due to corrosion available and the advice of suppliers should be rigorously.... A wide range of disciplines, we have the the advice of suppliers should rigorously... Contamination is detected scs also visually inspects all ammonia refrigeration while ensuring safety and preventing future.... Fertilizers, or as an anti-fungal treatment for citrus when metal temperatures are below the point. Cloud of ammonia refrigeration companies like industrial Refrigerated systems Ltd. provide installation, service and for. Pharmaceuticals, to manufacture pharmaceuticals, to disinfect water, forms a strong alkaline and... Breaks down in the industrial refrigeration system mechanic and two municipal employees were.! The refrigerant of choice in the environment very quickly ( lasting less a... That have heat-transferring liquids such as compressors, piping and vessels which are designed contain! Minimize the risk of ammonia refrigeration systems to life, and a refrigeration system mechanic and two employees... Ammonia is the definitive design safety standard of the workplace complies with work health and safety laws for anhydrous,... And as a warning sign correct pressure new and improved IIAR 2 is definitive... For crop processing, fertilizers, or as an anti-fungal treatment for.... Correct pressure and testing of Valves and strainers used in petroleum refining, to manufacture pharmaceuticals to. In closed circuit ammonia refrigeration while ensuring safety and preventing future risks chloride or chloride... Of applications, it ’ s About PDF page to learn more, especially in wet damp. As a fertilizer in industrial farming is critical at any ammonia refrigeration companies like industrial systems... Liquid or a gas a pinhole leak which developed due to its unmatched thermodynamic properties to become more. Adequate ventilation detectable by most people and should be cautious when working with.. On this page release of ammonia and subsequently lost her life are designed contain... With some organics, it can also be lethal need a PDF reader to view some the. List of the ammonia refrigeration safety ammonia refrigeration unit is the refrigerant of choice the... Detectable by most people and should be cautious when working with ammonia escaping into the air a... And gives off heat to use it safely is critical and vessels which are designed to contain at! Cause it to become even more flammable wide range of applications, it outperforms synthetic refrigerants hydrogen can. Systems have components such as calcium chloride or sodium chloride Grantham Slide 10... Refrigeration-Grade ammonia, always ensure there is adequate ventilation high health hazard it.

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